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Zwichenzug Holding Zone

Northwestern Memorial Tests 'Pacemaker' For Stomach
Manufactured by Transneuronix, this system consists of an electrical pulse generator, about the size of a pocket watch, which is placed under the skin in the abdomen and connected to the wall of the stomach with two wires. The pulse generator delivers electrical stimulation to the stomach, causing the feeling of fullness. Implanting it takes less than an hour and is done as an outpatient laparoscopic procedure.

Teamster investigators resign
The former federal prosecutor who heads the Teamsters' internal anti-corruption program as well as 20 other investigators and lawyers involved in that effort resigned yesterday, saying the union's president was not fully committed to fighting corruption.

In a sharply worded resignation letter, Edwin Stier, the former prosecutor, accused James P. Hoffa, the Teamsters president, of blocking a broad investigation into possible union corruption in Chicago and of dragging his feet in a case of alleged embezzlement by a Teamsters leader in Houston.

In addition to the investigators and lawyers, a 10-member anti-corruption advisory panel also resigned.

Daily Illini | Senate president: UI funding or Chief
Illinois Senate president Emil Jones Jr. (D-Chicago) suggested Tuesday that unless Chief Illiniwek is retired, he would consider blocking all state funding to the University.

At a news conference, Jones said the Board of Trustees should get rid of the mascot before the state legislature adjourns in late May and hinted at cutting state funding if the board doesn't comply.

'If our tax dollars are going to that university, and that university is using those tax dollars to permit stereotyping, then I think we should deal with it accordingly,' Jones said. News | Pentagon's No. 2 flubs Iraq casualties
Asked how many American troops have died in Iraq, the Pentagon's No. 2 civilian estimated Thursday the total was about 500 -- more than 200 soldiers short.

The Badger Herald Online - TAA rally ends in echoing chants at the Capitol
The striking members of the TAA picketed several buildings around the University of Wisconsin's central campus, holding signs pleading with students to support the strike and to not go to class, chanting and singing union songs. When picketing ended for the day after 4 p.m., the graduate employees gathered atop Bascom Hill, marched through State Street and rallied at the Capitol steps, which featured local TAA speakers and orators from various unions across the Midwest.

Excerpt from The Fourth Geneva Convention
Occupied Territories

Art. 47. Protected persons who are in occupied territory shall not be deprived, in any case or in any manner whatsoever, of the benefits of the present Convention by any change introduced, as the result of the occupation of a territory, into the institutions or government of the said territory, nor by any agreement concluded between the authorities of the occupied territories and the Occupying Power, nor by any annexation by the latter of the whole or part of the occupied territory.

Art. 48. Protected persons who are not nationals of the Power whose territory is occupied, may avail themselves of the right to leave the territory subject to the provisions of Article 35, and decisions thereon shall be taken in accordance with the procedure which the Occupying Power shall establish in accordance with the said Article.

Art. 49. Individual or mass forcible transfers, as well as deportations of protected persons from occupied territory to the territory of the Occupying Power or to that of any other country, occupied or not, are prohibited, regardless of their motive.

Nevertheless, the Occupying Power may undertake total or partial evacuation of a given area if the security of the population or imperative military reasons so demand. Such evacuations may not involve the displacement of protected persons outside the bounds of the occupied territory except when for material reasons it is impossible to avoid such displacement. Persons thus evacuated shall be transferred back to their homes as soon as hostilities in the area in question have ceased.

The Occupying Power undertaking such transfers or evacuations shall ensure, to the greatest practicable extent, that proper accommodation is provided to receive the protected persons, that the removals are effected in satisfactory conditions of hygiene, health, safety and nutrition, and that members of the same family are not separated.

The Protecting Power shall be informed of any transfers and evacuations as soon as they have taken place.

The Occupying Power shall not detain protected persons in an area particularly exposed to the dangers of war unless the security of the population or imperative military reasons so demand.

The Occupying Power shall not deport or transfer parts of its own civilian population into the territory it occupies.

Art. 50. The Occupying Power shall, with the cooperation of the national and local authorities, facilitate the proper working of all institutions devoted to the care and education of children.

The Occupying Power shall take all necessary steps to facilitate the identification of children and the registration of their parentage. It may not, in any case, change their personal status, nor enlist them in formations or organizations subordinate to it.

Should the local institutions be inadequate for the purpose, the Occupying Power shall make arrangements for the maintenance and education, if possible by persons of their own nationality, language and religion, of children who are orphaned or separated from their parents as a result of the war and who cannot be adequately cared for by a near relative or< friend. "

A special section of the Bureau set up in accordance with Article 136 shall be responsible for taking all necessary steps to identify children whose identity is in doubt. Particulars of their parents or other near relatives should always be recorded if available.

The Occupying Power shall not hinder the application of any preferential measures in regard to food, medical care and protection against the effects of war which may have been adopted prior to the occupation in favour of children under fifteen years, expectant mothers, and mothers of children under seven years.

Art. 51. The Occupying Power may not compel protected persons to serve in its armed or auxiliary forces. No pressure or propaganda which aims at securing voluntary enlistment is permitted.

The Occupying Power may not compel protected persons to work unless they are over eighteen years of age, and then only on work which is necessary either for the needs of the army of occupation, or for the public utility services, or for the feeding, sheltering, clothing, transportation or health of the population of the occupied country. Protected persons may not be compelled to undertake any work which would involve them in the obligation of taking part in military operations. The Occupying Power may not compel protected persons to employ forcible means to ensure the security of the installations where they are performing compulsory labour.

The work shall be carried out only in the occupied territory where the persons whose services have been requisitioned are. Every such person shall, so far as possible, be kept in his usual place of employment. Workers shall be paid a fair wage and the work shall be proportionate to their physical and intellectual capacities. The legislation in force in the occupied country concerning working conditions, and safeguards as regards, in particular, such matters as wages, hours of work, equipment, preliminary training and compensation for occupational accidents and diseases, shall be applicable to the protected persons assigned to the work referred to in this Article.

In no case shall requisition of labour lead to a mobilization of workers in an organization of a military or semi-military character.

Art. 52. No contract, agreement or regulation shall impair the right of any worker, whether voluntary or not and wherever he may be, to apply to the representatives of the Protecting Power in order to request the said Power's intervention.

All measures aiming at creating unemployment or at restricting the opportunities offered to workers in an occupied territory, in order to induce them to work for the Occupying Power, are prohibited.

Art. 53. Any destruction by the Occupying Power of real or personal property belonging individually or collectively to private persons, or to the State, or to other public authorities, or to social or cooperative organizations, is prohibited, except where such destruction is rendered absolutely necessary by military operations.

Art. 54. The Occupying Power may not alter the status of public officials or judges in the occupied territories, or in any way apply sanctions to or take any measures of coercion or discrimination against them, should they abstain from fulfilling their functions for reasons of conscience.

This prohibition does not prejudice the application of the second paragraph of Article 51. It does not affect the right of the Occupying Power to remove public officials from their posts.

Art. 55. To the fullest extent of the means available to it, the Occupying Power has the duty of ensuring the food and medical supplies of the population; it should, in particular, bring in the necessary foodstuffs, medical stores and other articles if the resources of the occupied territory are inadequate.

The Occupying Power may not requisition foodstuffs, articles or medical

occupation forces and administration personnel, and then only if the requirements of the civilian population have been taken into account.

Subject to the provisions of other international Conventions, the Occupying Power shall make arrangements to ensure that fair value is paid for any requisitioned goods.

The Protecting Power shall, at any time, be at liberty to verify the state of the food and medical supplies in occupied territories, except where temporary restrictions are made necessary by imperative military requirements.

Art. 56. To the fullest extent of the means available to it, the public Occupying Power has the duty of ensuring and maintaining, with the cooperation of national and local authorities, the medical and hospital establishments and services, public health and hygiene in the occupied territory, with particular reference to the adoption and application of the prophylactic and preventive measures necessary to combat the spread of contagious diseases and epidemics. Medical personnel of all categories shall be allowed to carry out their duties.

If new hospitals are set up in occupied territory and if the competent organs of the occupied State are not operating there, the occupying authorities shall, if necessary, grant them the recognition provided for in Article 18. In similar circumstances, the occupying authorities shall also grant recognition to hospital personnel and transport vehicles under the provisions of Articles 20 and 21.

In adopting measures of health and hygiene and in their implementation, the Occupying Power shall take into consideration the moral and ethical susceptibilities of the population of the occupied territory.

Art. 57. The Occupying Power may requisition civilian hospitals of hospitals only temporarily and only in cases of urgent necessity for the care of military wounded and sick, and then on condition that suitable arrangements are made in due time for the care and treatment of the patients and for the needs of the civilian population for hospital accommodation.

The material and stores of civilian hospitals cannot be requisitioned so long as they are necessary for the needs of the civilian population.

Art. 58. The Occupying Power shall permit ministers of religion to give spiritual assistance to the members of their religious communities.

The Occupying Power shall also accept consignments of books and articles required for religious needs and shall facilitate their distribution in occupied territory.

Art. 59. If the whole or part of the population of an occupied territory is inadequately supplied, the Occupying Power shall agree to relief schemes on behalf of the said population, and shall facilitate them by all the means at its disposal.

Such schemes, which may be undertaken either by States or by impartial humanitarian organizations such as the International Committee of the Red Cross, shall consist, in particular, of the provision of consignments of foodstuffs, medical supplies and clothing.

All Contracting Parties shall permit the free passage of these consignments and shall guarantee their protection.

A Power granting free passage to consignments on their way to territory occupied by an adverse Party to the conflict shall, however, have the right to search the consignments, to regulate their passage according to prescribed times and routes, and to be reasonably satisfied through the Protecting Power that these consignments are to be used for the relief of the needy population and are not to be used for the benefit of the Occupying Power.

Art. 60. Relief consignments shall in no way relieve the Occupying Power of any of its responsibilities under Articles 55, 56 and 59. The Occupying Power shall in no way whatsoever divert relief consignments from the purpose for which they are intended, except in cases of urgent necessity, in the interests of the population of the occupied territory and with the consent of the Protecting Power.

Art. 61. The distribution of the relief consignments referred to in the foregoing Articles shall be carried out with the cooperation and under the supervision of the Protecting Power. This duty may also be delegated, by agreement between the Occupying Power and the Protecting Power, to a neutral Power, to the International Committee of the Red Cross or to any other impartial humanitarian body.

Such consignments shall be exempt in occupied territory from all charges, taxes or customs duties unless these are necessary in the interests of the economy of the territory. The Occupying Power shall facilitate the rapid distribution of these consignments.

All Contracting Parties shall endeavour to permit the transit and transport, free of charge, of such relief consignments on their way to occupied territories.

Art. 62. Subject to imperative reasons of security, protected persons in occupied territories shall be permitted to receive the individual relief consignments sent to them.

Art. 63. Subject to temporary and exceptional measures imposed for urgent reasons of security by the Occupying Power:

(a) recognized National Red Cross (Red Crescent, Red Lion and Sun) Societies shall be able to pursue their activities in accordance with Red Cross principles, as defined by the International Red Cross Conferences. Other relief societies shall be permitted to continue their humanitarian activities under similar conditions;

(b) the Occupying Power may not require any changes in the personnel or structure of these societies, which would prejudice the aforesaid activities.

The same principles shall apply to the activities and personnel of special organizations of a non-military character, which already exist or which may be established, for the purpose of ensuring the living conditions of the civilian population by the maintenance of the essential public utility services, by the distribution of relief and by the organization of rescues.

Art. 64. The penal laws of the occupied territory shall remain in force, with the exception that they may be repealed or suspended by the Occupying Power in cases where they constitute a threat to its security or an obstacle to the application of the present Convention.

Subject to the latter consideration and to the necessity for ensuring the effective administration of justice, the tribunals of the occupied territory shall continue to function in respect of all offences covered by the said laws.

The Occupying Power may, however, subject the population of the occupied territory to provisions which are essential to enable the Occupying Power to fulfil its obligations under the present Convention, to maintain the orderly government of the territory, and to ensure the security of the Occupying Power, of the members and property of the occupying forces or administration, and likewise of the establishments and lines of communication used by them.

Art. 65. The penal provisions enacted by the Occupying Power shall not come into force before they have been published and brought to the knowledge of the inhabitants in their own language. The effect of these penal provisions shall not be retroactive.

Art. 66. In case of a breach of the penal provisions promulgated by it by virtue of the second paragraph of Article 64 the Occupying Power may hand over the accused to its properly constituted, non-political military courts, on condition that the said courts sit in the occupied country. Courts of appeal shall preferably sit in the occupied country.

Art. 67. The courts shall apply only those provisions of law which were applicable prior to the offence, and which are in accordance with general principles of law, in particular the principle that the penalty shall be proportionate to the offence. They shall take into consideration the fact the accused is not a national of the Occupying Power.

Art. 68. Protected persons who commit an offence which is solely intended to harm the Occupying Power, but which does not constitute an attempt on the life or limb of members of the occupying forces or administration, nor a grave collective danger, nor seriously damage the property of the occupying forces or administration or the installations used by them, shall be liable to internment or simple imprisonment, provided the duration of such internment or imprisonment is proportionate to the offence committed.

Furthermore, internment or imprisonment shall, for such offences, be the only measure adopted for depriving protected persons of liberty. The courts provided for under Article 66 of the present Convention may at their discretion convert a sentence of imprisonment to one of internment for the same period.

The penal provisions promulgated by the Occupying Power in accordance with Articles 64 and 65 may impose the death penalty on a protected person only in cases where the person is guilty of espionage, of serious acts of sabotage against the military installations of the Occupying Power or of intentional offences which have caused the death of one or more persons, provided that such offences were punishable by death under the law of the occupied territory in force before the occupation began.

The death penalty may not be pronounced on a protected person unless the attention of the court has been particularly called to the fact that since the accused is not a national of the Occupying Power, he is not bound to it by any duty of allegiance.

In any case, the death penalty may not be pronounced on a protected person who was under eighteen years of age at the time of the offence.

Art. 69. In all cases the duration of the period during which a protected person accused of an offence is under arrest awaiting trial or punishment shall be deducted from any period of imprisonment of awarded.

Art. 70. Protected persons shall not be arrested, prosecuted or convicted by the Occupying Power for acts committed or for opinions expressed before the occupation, or during a temporary interruption thereof, with the exception of breaches of the laws and customs of war.

Nationals of the occupying Power who, before the outbreak of hostilities, have sought refuge in the territory of the occupied State, shall not be arrested, prosecuted, convicted or deported from the occupied territory, except for offences committed after the outbreak of hostilities, or for offences under common law committed before the outbreak of hostilities which, according to the law of the occupied State, would have justified extradition in time of peace.

Art. 71. No sentence shall be pronounced by the competent courts of the Occupying Power except after a regular trial.

Accused persons who are prosecuted by the Occupying Power shall be promptly informed, in writing, in a language which they understand, of the particulars of the charges preferred against them, and shall be brought to trial as rapidly as possible. The Protecting Power shall be informed of all proceedings instituted by the Occupying Power against protected persons in respect of charges involving the death penalty or imprisonment for two years or more; it shall be enabled, at any time, to obtain information regarding the state of such proceedings. Furthermore, the Protecting Power shall be entitled, on request, to be furnished with all particulars of these and of any other proceedings instituted by the Occupying Power< against protected persons. "

The notification to the Protecting Power, as provided for in the second paragraph above, shall be sent immediately, and shall in any case reach the Protecting Power three weeks before the date of the first hearing. Unless, at the opening of the trial, evidence is submitted that the provisions of this Article are fully complied with, the trial shall not proceed. The notification shall include the following particulars:

(a) description of the accused;

(b) place of residence or detention;

(c) specification of the charge or charges (with mention of the penal provisions under which it is brought);

(d) designation of the court which will hear the case;

(e) place and date of the first hearing.

Art. 72. Accused persons shall have the right to present evidence necessary to their defence and may, in particular, call witnesses. They shall have the right to be assisted by a qualified advocate or counsel of their own choice, who shall be able to visit them freely and shall enjoy the necessary facilities for preparing the defence.

Failing a choice by the accused, the Protecting Power may provide him with an advocate or counsel. When an accused person has to meet a serious charge and the Protecting Power is not functioning, the Occupying Power, subject to the consent of the accused, shall provide an advocate or counsel.

Accused persons shall, unless they freely waive such assistance, be aided by an interpreter, both during preliminary investigation and during the hearing in court. They shall have at any time the right to object to the interpreter and to ask for his replacement.

Art.73. A convicted person shall have the right of appeal provided for by the laws applied by the court. He shall be fully informed of his right to appeal or petition and of the time limit within which he may do so.

The penal procedure provided in the present Section shall apply, as far as it is applicable, to appeals. Where the laws applied by the Court make no provision for appeals, the convicted person shall have the right to petition against the finding and sentence to the competent authority of the Occupying Power.

Art. 74. Representatives of the Protecting Power shall have the right to attend the trial of any protected person, unless the hearing has, as an exceptional measure, to be held in camera in the interests of the security of the Occupying Power, which shall then notify the Protecting Power. A notification in respect of the date and place of trial shall be sent to the Protecting Power.

Any judgement involving a sentence of death, or imprisonment for two years or more, shall be communicated, with the relevant grounds, as rapidly as possible to the Protecting Power. The notification shall contain a reference to the notification made under Article 71 and, in the case of sentences of imprisonment, the name of the place where the sentence is to be served. A record of judgements other than those referred to above shall be kept by the court and shall be open to inspection by representatives of the Protecting Power. Any period allowed for appeal in the case of sentences involving the death penalty, or imprisonment of two years or more, shall not run until notification of judgement has been received by the Protecting Power.

Art. 75. In no case shall persons condemned to death be deprived of the right of petition for pardon or reprieve.

No death sentence shall be carried out before the expiration of a period of a least six months from the date of receipt by the Protecting Power of the notification of the final judgment confirming such death sentence, or of an order denying pardon or reprieve.

The six months period of suspension of the death sentence herein prescribed may be reduced in individual cases in circumstances of grave emergency involving an organized threat to the security of the Occupying Power or its forces, provided always that the Protecting Power is notified of such reduction and is given reasonable time and opportunity to make representations to the competent occupying authorities in respect of such death sentences.

Art. 76. Protected persons accused of offences shall be detained in the occupied country, and if convicted they shall serve their sentences therein. They shall, if possible, be separated from other detainees and shall enjoy conditions of food and hygiene which will be sufficient to keep them in good health, and which will be at least equal to those obtaining in prisons in the occupied country.

They shall receive the medical attention required by their state of health.

They shall also have the right to receive any spiritual assistance which< they may require. "

Women shall be confined in separate quarters and shall be under the direct supervision of women.

Proper regard shall be paid to the special treatment due to minors.

Protected persons who are detained shall have the right to be visited by delegates of the Protecting Power and of the International Committee of the Red Cross, in accordance with the provisions of Article 143.

Such persons shall have the right to receive at least one relief parcel monthly.

Art. 77. Protected persons who have been accused of offences or convicted by the courts in occupied territory, shall be handed over at the close of occupation, with the relevant records, to the authorities of the liberated territory.

Art. 78. If the Occupying Power considers it necessary, for imperative reasons of security, to take safety measures concerning protected persons, it may, at the most, subject them to assigned residence or to internment.

Decisions regarding such assigned residence or internment shall be made according to a regular procedure to be prescribed by the Occupying Power in accordance with the provisions of the present Convention. This procedure shall include the right of appeal for the parties concerned. Appeals shall be decided with the least possible delay. In the event of the decision being upheld, it shall be subject to periodical review, if possible every six months, by a competent body set up by the said Power.

Protected persons made subject to assigned residence and thus required to leave their homes shall enjoy the full benefit of Article 39 of the present Convention.

Excerpts from Laws and Customs of War on Land (Hague IV); October 18, 1907


Art. 42. Territory is considered occupied when it is actually placed under the authority of the hostile army.

The occupation extends only to the territory where such authority has been established and can be exercised.

Art. 43. The authority of the legitimate power having in fact passed into the hands of the occupant, the latter shall take all the measures in his power to restore, and ensure, as far as possible, public order and safety, while respecting, unless absolutely prevented, the laws in force in the country.

Art. 44. A belligerent is forbidden to force the inhabitants of territory occupied by it to furnish information about the army of the other belligerent, or about its means of defense.

Art. 45. It is forbidden to compel the inhabitants of occupied territory to swear allegiance to the hostile Power.

Art. 46. Family honour and rights, the lives of persons, and private property, as well as religious convictions and practice, must be respected.

Private property cannot be confiscated.

Art. 47. Pillage is formally forbidden.

Art. 48. If, in the territory occupied, the occupant collects the taxes, dues, and tolls imposed for the benefit of the State, he shall do so, as far as is possible, in accordance with the rules of assessment and incidence in force, and shall in consequence be bound to defray the expenses of the administration of the occupied territory to the same extent as the legitimate Government was so bound.

Art. 49. If, in addition to the taxes mentioned in the above article, the occupant levies other money contributions in the occupied territory, this shall only be for the needs of the army or of the administration of the territory in question.

Art. 50. No general penalty, pecuniary or otherwise, shall be inflicted upon the population on account of the acts of individuals for which they cannot be regarded as jointly and severally responsible.

Art. 51. No contribution shall be collected except under a written order, and on the responsibility of a commander-in-chief.

The collection of the said contribution shall only be effected as far as possible in accordance with the rules of assessment and incidence of the taxes in force.

For every contribution a receipt shall be given to the contributors.

Art. 52. Requisitions in kind and services shall not be demanded from municipalities or inhabitants except for the needs of the army of occupation. They shall be in proportion to the resources of the country, and of such a nature as not to involve the inhabitants in the obligation of taking part in military operations against their own country.

Such requisitions and services shall only be demanded on the authority of the commander in the locality occupied.

Contributions in kind shall as far as possible be paid for in cash; if not, a receipt shall be given and the payment of the amount due shall be made as soon as possible.

Art. 53. An army of occupation can only take possession of cash, funds, and realizable securities which are strictly the property of the State, depots of arms, means of transport, stores and supplies, and, generally, all movable property belonging to the State which may be used for military operations.

All appliances, whether on land, at sea, or in the air, adapted for the transmission of news, or for the transport of persons or things, exclusive of cases governed by naval law, depots of arms, and, generally, all kinds of munitions of war, may be seized, even if they belong to private individuals, but must be restored and compensation fixed when peace is made.

Art. 54. Submarine cables connecting an occupied territory with a neutral territory shall not be seized or destroyed except in the case of absolute necessity. They must likewise be restored and compensation fixed when peace is made.

Art. 55. The occupying State shall be regarded only as administrator and usufructuary of public buildings, real estate, forests, and agricultural estates belonging to the hostile State, and situated in the occupied country. It must safeguard the capital of these properties, and administer them in accordance with the rules of usufruct.

Art. 56. The property of municipalities, that of institutions dedicated to religion, charity and education, the arts and sciences, even when State property, shall be treated as private property.

All seizure of, destruction or wilful damage done to institutions of this character, historic monuments, works of art and science, is forbidden, and should be made the subject of legal proceedings.

Article 45

Protection of persons who have taken part in hostilities

1. A person who takes part in hostilities and falls into the power of an adverse Party shall be presumed to be a prisoner of war, and therefore shall be protected by the Third Convention, if he claims the status of prisoner of war, or if he appears to be entitled to such status, or if the Party on which he depends claims such status on his behalf by notification to the detaining Power or to the Protecting Power. Should any doubt arise as to whether any such person is entitled to the status of prisoner of war, he shall continue to have such status and, therefore, to be protected by the Third Convention and this Protocol until such time as his status has been determined by a competent tribunal.

2. If a person who has fallen into the power of an adverse Party is not held as a prisoner of war and is to be tried by that Party for an offence arising out of the hostilities, he shall have the right to assert his entitlement to prisoner-of-war status before a judicial tribunal and to have that question adjudicated. Whenever possible under the applicable procedure, this adjudication shall occur before the trial for the offence. The representatives of the Protecting Power shall be entitled to attend the proceedings in which that question is adjudicated, unless, exceptionally, the proceedings are held in camera in the interest of State security. In such a case the detaining Power shall advise the Protecting Power accordingly.

3. Any person who has taken part in hostilities, who is not entitled to prisoner-of-war status and who does not benefit from more favourable treatment in accordance with the Fourth Convention shall have the right at all times to the protection of Article 75 of this Protocol. In occupied territory, any such person, unless he is held as a spy, shall also be entitled, notwithstanding Article 5 of the Fourth Convention, to his rights of communication under that Convention.

Article 75

Fundamental guarantees

1. In so far as they are affected by a situation referred to in Article 1 of this Protocol, persons who are in the power of a Party to the conflict and who do not benefit from more favourable treatment under the Conventions or under this Protocol shall be treated humanely in all circumstances and shall enjoy, as a minimum, the protection provided by this Article without any adverse distinction based upon race, colour, sex, language, religion or belief, political or other opinion, national or social origin, wealth, birth or other status, or on any other similar criteria. Each Party shall respect the person, honour, convictions and religious practices of all such persons.

2. The following acts are and shall remain prohibited at any time and in any place whatsoever, whether committed by civilian or by military agents:

(a) violence to the life, health, or physical or mental well-being of persons, in particular:

(i) murder;

(ii) torture of all kinds, whether physical or mental;

(iii) corporal punishment; and

(iv) mutilation;

(b) outrages upon personal dignity, in particular humiliating and degrading treatment, enforced prostitution and any form of indecent assault;

(c) the taking of hostages;

(d) collective punishments; and

(e) threats to commit any of the foregoing acts.

3. Any person arrested, detained or interned for actions related to the armed conflict shall be informed promptly, in a language he understands, of the reasons why these measures have been taken. Except in cases of arrest or detention for penal offences, such persons shall be released with the minimum delay possible and in any event as soon as the circumstances justifying the arrest, detention or internment have ceased to exist.

4. No sentence may be passed and no penalty may be executed on a person found guilty of a penal offence related to the armed conflict except pursuant to a conviction pronounced by an impartial and regularly constituted court respecting the generally recognized principles of regular judicial procedure, which include the following:

(a) the procedure shall provide for an accused to be informed without delay of the particulars of the offence alleged against him and shall afford the accused before and during his trial all necessary rights and means of defence;

(b) no one shall be convicted of an offence except on the basis of individual penal responsibility;

(c) no one shall be accused or convicted of a criminal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a criminal offence under the national or international law to which he was subject at the time when it was committed; nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than that which was applicable at the time when the criminal offence was committed; if, after the commission of the offence, provision is made by law for the imposition of a lighter penalty, the offender shall benefit thereby;

(d) anyone charged with an offence is presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law;

(e) anyone charged with an offence shall have the right to be tried in his presence;

(f) no one shall be compelled to testify against himself or to confess guilt;

(g) anyone charged with an offence shall have the right to examine, or have examined, the witnesses against him and to obtain the attendance and examination of witnesses on his behalf under the same conditions as witnesses against him;

(h) no one shall be prosecuted or punished by the same Party for an offence in respect of which a final judgement acquitting or convicting that person has been previously pronounced under the same law and judicial procedure;

(i) anyone prosecuted for an offence shall have the right to have the judgement pronounced publicly; and

(j) a convicted person shall be advised on conviction of his judicial and other remedies and of the time-limits within which they may be exercised.

5. Women whose liberty has been restricted for reasons related to the armed conflict shall be held in quarters separated from men's quarters. They shall be under the immediate supervision of women. Nevertheless, in cases where families are detained or interned, they shall, whenever possible, be held in the same place and accommodated as family units.

6. Persons who are arrested, detained or interned for reasons related to the armed conflict shall enjoy the protection provided by this Article until their final release, repatriation or re-establishment, even after the end of the armed conflict.

7. In order to avoid any doubt concerning the prosecution and trial of persons accused of war crimes or crimes against humanity, the following principles shall apply:

(a) persons who are accused of such crimes should be submitted for the purpose of prosecution and trial in accordance with the applicable rules of international law; and

(b) any such persons who do not benefit from more favourable treatment under the Conventions or this Protocol shall be accorded the treatment provided by this Article, whether or not the crimes of which they are accused constitute grave breaches of the Conventions or of this Protocol.

8. No provision of this Article may be construed as limiting or infringing any other more favourable provision granting greater protection, under any applicable rules of international law, to persons covered by paragraph 1.

The State | College Leader 'Disappointed' by Cheney
Westminster College's president said Monday he was so 'surprised and disappointed' by Vice President Dick Cheney's attacks on John Kerry during a speech that he is inviting the Democrat to visit for a reply.

Power lines set to carry high-speed Internet | Christian Science Monitor
BPL will also encourage innovative technology, proponents say. 'If every power plug in your house becomes a broadband connection, that means that almost anything you plug into the wall can connect to the Internet,' says Thomas of the FCC. 'That means that your refrigerator can have a meaningful conversation with the supermarket and say, 'Hi, I need milk.' Or you could call your house and say, 'I'm coming home in two hours, turn the air conditioner on.' It's only restricted by imagination.'

Southwest Flies Into Labor Turbulence
The flight attendants have held rallies to publicize their frustration, arguing that Southwest's latest offer would leave their wages 20% to 30% below the industry average. There has even been talk of a possible strike against Dallas-based Southwest if the talks deteriorate further.

Muncie Star Press | Americans put bodies on line for lawns
Though it's not well publicized, he said, thousands of Americans are maimed every year in mowing accidents.

Brattleboro Reformer | VY search continues
Neal Sheehan, NRC spokesman for region I, said the fuel was most likely in one of three places: lying at the bottom of the 40-feet-deep spent fuel pool; sitting in some testing lab, where it may have been shipped off to without being properly recorded; or buried deep in the low-level waste dump in Snelling, S.C., where it may have been inadvertently sent. EPA Approved ICBMs
In order to comply with EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) regulations, and at a cost of about $5.2 million per ICBM, the rocket motors on 500 Minuteman III missiles will be replaced with new ones. These rockets will emit less toxic chemicals when used.

(via Tom Tomorrow)

State Is Urged to Ban Vote Machine
Four California counties should be prohibited from using an electronic voting machine sold by Diebold Election Systems for the November election, a state advisory panel said Thursday. If Secretary of State Kevin Shelley follows the panel's recommendation, election officials in San Diego, Kern, Solano and San Joaquin counties will be forced to find a potentially costly replacement system for the 15,000 affected machines before the election. The panel also urged the state attorney general to launch an investigation of the manufacturer.

Guardian Unlimited | US elections 2004 | Worlds collide on the web
The seven young organisers who run the Counter Convention website are the kind of people you would happily take home to mother. But behind the designer specs and sideburns lurks a passion to subvert a party gathering they say is nothing more than a cynical attempt to exploit the city's tragedy, and provoke violence for political ends.

Indian Country Today [2004/04/22] Cigarette companies target American Indians
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death among American Indians and Alaska Natives and tobacco use is an important risk factor for this disease.

'To build its image and credibility in the community, the tobacco industry targets American Indians and Alaska Natives by funding cultural events such as pow wows and rodeos,' the Center said.

The tobacco industry uses cultural symbols and designs to target American Indians, including Native people smoking pipes or images of warriors. Research shows that among the five major racial and ethnic populations, adult smoking prevalence was highest among American Indians and Alaska Natives in 1997. It was 34.1 percent, followed by African Americans (26.7), Caucasians (25.3) Hispanics (20.4) and Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (16.9).

Brattleboro Reformer - VY fuel rod pieces missing
The two missing segments had been placed in a special stainless steel five-gallon bucket in 1979 because of a deficiency in the fuel cladding surrounding them. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission's on-site inspector requested the container be opened for routine inspection and, although the bucket was found with the lid still on, the segments were not inside. It was not clear when the discovery was made.

LA Times | Welcome to the Slammer
Although some people might feel uneasy spending their downtime in something reminiscent of a state correctional facility, Jillette's made-to-measure manse is a perfect fit for his outsize personality and towering 6-foot, 6-inch frame. The kitchen counters are six inches higher than those found in most homes, and the steps of the spiral staircase are an inch and a half longer and three-fourths of an inch higher to accommodate his longer stride.

Ethics Of Boosting Brainpower Debated By Researchers
Illes said the key difference between physical enhancements such as plastic surgery and neural enhancement through drugs or brain implants comes down to personhood. A nose job doesn’t change who you are. Drugs might, she said. “Am I the same person on Ritalin as off?” Farah asked.

AP Wire | 04/21/2004 | Reporters, Editors From Journal Picket
Reporters from The Wall Street Journal, escalating an increasingly hostile standoff with management, picketed in front of Dow Jones & Co.'s annual meeting Wednesday to demand better wage and health care benefits.

About 50 journalists carried placards criticizing the company's contract proposal and chanted 'Zero percent, what will pay the rent' and 'Peter, Peter, benefits eater' in reference to chairman and CEO Peter Kann.

Amazon destruction rising fast | Christian Science Monitor
Earlier this month, the government announced that annual Amazon deforestation had grown 2 percent last year, to 9,169 square miles - an area the size of New Hampshire and the second-highest year since officials started tracking it in 1988.

Associated Press | Chemist May Have Destroyed Evidence
The police memorandum details alleged wrongdoing by Gilchrist in 11 cases from the 1980s. The most significant misconduct alleged was in the McCarty case, and those findings are the crux of McCarty's latest appeal of his conviction in the 1982 murder of a young woman, sources familiar with the case told the AP on condition of anonymity.

The Woonsocket Call | Judge delays vote on day-care union
A Superior Court judge on Monday granted a request by Gov. Don Carcieri to put on hold home day-care providers’ efforts to unionize and be treated as state employees. Judge Daniel Procaccini’s decision means the estimated 1,300 home day-care providers can’t vote on whether to unionize until Carcieri’s appeal to the court of the state labor board’s decision granting them status as state employees is decided.

AP Wire | 04/19/2004 | UW-Madison teaching assistants approve walkout
University of Wisconsin-Madison teaching assistants have authorized taking strike action if they don't reach a contract with the state, their union said Monday. The Teaching Assistants' Association said it had easily reached the two-thirds majority of member support needed to stage a two-day walkout and withhold grades as a protest over their lack of a contract. Paper ballots went out last week to 1,208 teaching and program assistants who are members of Teaching Assistants' Association Local 3220. Two-thirds, or 805, had to vote yes by Monday for the job actions to begin. The union has been negotiating for a 2003-05 contract for nearly 10 months. The state's last offer provided no wage increase for 2003-04 and a 1.7 percent increase for 2004-05.

NY Metro | Condoleeza Rice's Embarrassing Mistake
A pressing issue of dinner-party etiquette is vexing Washington, according to a story now making the D.C. rounds: How should you react when your guest, in this case national-security adviser Condoleezza Rice, makes a poignant faux pas? At a recent dinner party hosted by New York Times D.C. bureau chief Philip Taubman and his wife, Times reporter Felicity Barringer, and attended by Arthur Sulzberger Jr., Maureen Dowd, Steven Weisman, and Elisabeth Bumiller, Rice was reportedly overheard saying, "As I was telling my husb—" and then stopping herself abruptly, before saying, "As I was telling President Bush." Jaws dropped, but a guest says the slip by the unmarried politician, who spends weekends with the president and his wife, seemed more psychologically telling than incriminating. Nobody thinks Bush and Rice are actually an item. A National Security Council spokesman laughed and said, "No comment."

(via Spelunker's World)
Aljazeera | Bowel cure that relies on impurities
Western countries have experienced a sharp rise in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in the past 50 years. That increase has coincided with a sharp fall in infections by classic intestinal parasites such as roundworm and human whipworms. In developing countries, on the other hand, these parasites are common, but IBD is very rare.

Deseret News | Utah family has 5 on active duty
The Johnsons have not one, not two, but three sons serving as combat engineers with the Utah National Guard in Iraq. A fourth son is now headed for a tour of duty in Afghanistan. And their son-in-law, married to the Johnsons' oldest child and only daughter, is also fighting in Iraq.

The New York Times | Wal-Mart, a Nation Unto Itself
But the more than 250 sociologists, anthropologists, historians and other scholars who gathered at the University of California here on Monday for a conference on Wal-Mart came looking for more than the company's vital statistics. Like archaeologists who pick over artifacts to understand an ancient society, the scholars here were examining Wal-Mart for insights into the very nature of American capitalist culture. As Susan Strasser, a history professor at the University of Delaware, said, 'Wal-Mart has come to represent something that's even bigger than it is.'

Chicago Tribune | Illiniwek skirmish will shift to Capitol
Opponents of the University of Illinois' controversial Native American mascot will take their cause to the Illinois State House later this month, where they will appeal to black and Latino lawmakers to put pressure on the state school to get rid of Chief Illiniwek. Meetings with the lawmakers come as part of an agreement to end a sit-in at the Swanlund Administrative Building, where 40 protesters camped for two days last week.

Empire Notes | Reporting from Baghdad (April 17, 11:40 a.m.)
I haven't found an Iraqi with a good word for the attack on Fallujah -- and, of course, the Governing Council, U.N. special envoy Lakhdar Brahimi, and even British military commanders in Basra have condemned it. Saleh is no exception. And, although he is not a follower of anyone, including Moqtada al-Sadr, he says clearly, 'If they try to take Moqtada, they will open the gates of hell.' When I spoke to him later about the standoff in Najaf, he was very apprehensive, believing that the continuing American military buildup signalled a likely assault. I asked if at that point al-Sistani would call for jihad, and he said, 'If he doesn't, nobody will listen to him anymore. He has already said that Najaf is a red line the Americans must not cross.'

Baltimore Sun | Manufacturers make more without hiring
Changes such as these - from reconfiguring assembly lines to cross-training workers, to installing expensive new technology - are pumping up productivity at manufacturing plants across the country. That means companies have been able to ratchet up output with the same number of, or fewer, workers. Extraordinary growth in productivity might prove to be a hidden contributor to America's current economic dilemma - soaring corporate profits accompanied by weak job growth.

Yakima Herald-Republic | Asparagus: Laid-Off Workers Paying Price for Shut-Down Line
TOPPENISH — About this time last year, Gloria Vargas was ready for the asparagus canning line to fire up at Del Monte. She'd been sorting and packing at the Toppenish plant for 20 years. This year, however, she and about 350 other workers won't be returning to the line. It was shut down at the end of last year's harvest.

American Prospect Online | Neal Gabler | Liberalism's Lost Script
The war planners never really thought there was any downside to going in, or that anything could go wrong in the aftermath. They assumed that the troops would sweep across Iraq without resistance, that Iraqis would greet them as liberators and stick flowers in the barrels of their rifles, and that an Iraqi government would be installed in relatively short order. They made these assumptions, we now know, not on the basis of any intelligence or understanding of the Iraqi situation. They made them because it seems they were in thrall to an idea that has become a fundamental component of modern American conservatism generally. It is the idea that, in the end, everything turns out well.

IUF News and Urgent Actions Database | IUF affiliate and Colombian Coca-Cola bottler sign agreement - union rights clauses maintained in full
The final agreement reached saw the company withdraw all its demands that these protective clauses be withdrawn. In addition the agreement included the reinstatement of one of two union representatives who had been dismissed two years earlier (the second for whom additional compensation was negotiated had found alternative employment and preferred not to return to work at the plant). In economic terms improvements included a wage increase of 12% and additional financial benefits.

Peoria Journal Star | Cat gives 'final offer' to UAW

Caterpillar Inc.'s 'final offer' to the United Auto Workers will be put before union members on April 25, with a possible vote whether to accept it as their new contract.

The New York Times | Pushing for Union, Columbia Grad Students Are Set to Strike
Graduate teaching assistants at Columbia University said yesterday that they would go on strike Monday morning and remain out until Columbia recognized their right to unionize, which could shut down hundreds of classes through the end of the school year.

'This is an indefinite strike; we're not going to do anything until they recognize our union,' said Dermot Ryan, a fifth-year graduate student in English and comparative literature who teaches 'Introduction to Contemporary Civilization,' one of Columbia's core courses. 'We will stay out as long as it takes.'

Graduate students represent a significant portion of the teaching force at Columbia. Not only do they run small discussion sessions of large lecture courses, but they also teach more than half of the core courses that all Columbia students must take, like 'Contemporary Civilization,' 'Literature and Humanities' and writing.

Guardian Unlimited | World Latest | Protesters End Sit-In at U. of Illinois
CHAMPAIGN, Ill. (AP) - Protesters demanding that the University of Illinois eliminate its Chief Illiniwek mascot ended a 32-hour campus sit-in Friday after lawmakers agreed to discuss the controversial symbol. A group of roughly 40 protesters calling itself the Multicultural Coalition Against the Chief took over the school's main administrative building early Thursday, demanding that the university eliminate the much-debated Indian mascot and a related Indian-head logo.

In return for ending the protest, coalition members were expected to meet April 27 in Springfield with several state legislators, including Senate President Emil Jones. | Dallas jails flunk state inspection
Among the problems was overcrowding in the intake area, which on the day inspectors visited held 107 inmates instead of the allowed 43. Sheriff’s commanders said the area was temporarily flooded with prisoners after the Dallas Police Department conducted a sting operation and quickly arrested 30 or 40 people

The Globe and Mail
Kansas Governor Kathleen Sebelius vetoed a bill Friday to allow residents to carry concealed handguns, saying the measure would have made law-enforcement officers' jobs more difficult.

LaborWire - The Joe Hill Dispatch
Minneapolis Star Tribune reports: But the tentative two-year contract, which was scheduled to be voted on Thursday night and today by the 2,200-member Amalgamated Transit Union Local 1005, would actually lower monthly family health-care premiums for the short term and give full-time employees a $1,100 signing bonus. The bonus was not part of the earlier contract offer. Part-time employees would receive $600. Health care has been a major sticking point in the 44-day-old strike. The tentative contract covers the period from Aug. 1, 2003, to July 31, 2005.

Pork Magazine - Industry News | Turning Manure Into Crude Oil
A University of Illinois research team is working on turning pig manure into a form of crude oil that could be refined to heat homes or generate electricity.

Years of research and fine-tuning are ahead before the idea could be commercially viable, but results so far indicate there might be big benefits for farmers and consumers, according to lead researcher Yanhui Zhang. Protesters occupy administration building to protest Chief Illiniwek
Tulsi Dharmarajan, a spokeswoman for the group of about 40 protesters, said they planned to stay in the building until they heard from the board of trustees. The protesters chose Thursday because it would have been the date of the board's April meeting, which was canceled after student trustee Nate Allen said he would ask for a vote on the issue.

Reuters | Iraq Cleric Offers Peace Talks, U.S. Forces Poised
The U.S. military announced eight more American soldiers had been killed in combat, bringing to 93 the number killed in action in April -- four more than in the three-week war that toppled Saddam last year.

NCM: Affordable AIDS Drugs for Africa Stalled By U.S. Concerns
Pharmaceutical companies first said Africans would not take pills to treat AIDS regularly and it would destroy the effectiveness of the drugs. Studies showed that to be a fallacy. They next said that generics weren't safe. The United Nations World Health Organization recently certified selected generic antiretrovirals to treat HIV for meeting standards of quality and safety.

But now United States health officials are slowing distribution of the AIDS pills by holding out for an international consensus on how to evaluate the generic drugs.

Critics charge that the Bush administration is just trying to protect pharmaceutical profits, most recently by convening a world conference in Botswana March 29-30 to discuss the quality and safety of fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) of antiretrovirals.

Reuters | Vacationing Bush Not Told of 9/11 'Clue'
Tenet said he had not spoken to the president that month, when Bush was staying at his ranch in Crawford, Texas, nor did he bring it to the attention of other senior officials, saying simply it did not fit the agenda.

'He's in Texas and I'm either here or on leave for some of that time,' he said. 'In this time period, I'm not talking to him, no.'

Yuma Sun | Colorado River ranked most endangered
Rocket fuel, human waste and uranium tailings make the Colorado River the nation’s most threatened river, the conservation group American Rivers said Tuesday.

Ultrasound Treatment For Hurt Muscles May Feel Good, But Doesn't Promote Healing, Study Suggests
Although ultrasound is one of the most frequently prescribed treatments for one of the most common sport and athletic injuries – skeletal muscle contusions – there's really no good scientific evidence showing that it treats injured muscles effectively, said Steven Devor, the study's lead author and an assistant professor of sport and exercise sciences at Ohio State University.

Deaths of scores of mercenaries not reported
At least 80 foreign mercenaries - security guards recruited from the United States, Europe and South Africa and working for American companies - have been killed in the past eight days in Iraq...At least 18 000 mercenaries, many of them tasked to protect US troops and personnel, are now believed to be in Iraq, some of them earning $1 000 (about R6 300) a day...The presence of such large numbers of mercenaries, first publicised in The Independent two weeks ago, was bound to lead to further casualties. But although many of the heavily armed Western security men are working for the US Department of Defence - and most of them are former Special Forces soldiers - they are not listed as serving military personnel. Their losses can therefore be hidden from public view. The US authorities in Iraq, however, are aware that more Western mercenaries lost their lives in the past week than occupation soldiers over the past 14 days.
(via Kathryn Cramer)
Gambling on tribal ancestry |
The threat of disenrollment is a grave insult, contend the aggrieved: It's an insult to old family traditions, to ancient heritage, and to Pechanga pride. It's also a major hit to the pocketbook. The members in question stand to lose more than $120,000 each a year in casino profits and bonuses, as well as health insurance and other benefits.

The New York Times > Arts > Television > Negotiations Stalled for Voice Actors in 'The Simpsons'
The fall season for 'The Simpsons,' normally 22 episodes, will be cut short because of the contract impasse, the Fox executive said. 'We can't saddle the show with costs that make it uneconomical to produce,' he added.

Work in Progress—April 12, 2004 - H&M, Sterling Workers are UNITE
Two hundred workers at H&M’s distribution centers in Secaucus, N.J., and Cheshire, Conn., won union representation April 7 with UNITE through a majority-verification or card-check process, in which an employer agrees to honor the workers’ choice after a majority indi­cates the desire to form a union by signing authorizations. Workers began to organize in July 2003, but H&M refused to accept the card-check results. After large protests at U.S. and European H&M stores, the company signed an agreement March 2 to honor card-checks and a majority of the workers again signed authorization cards. But H&M refused to recognize the results and forced the issue to an arbitrator, who ruled in favor of the workers.

Despite high gas prices, Americans keep on driving | Christian Science Monitor
Experts say it will take a crystal ball to determine just where that threshold is. Last week, gas prices hit a new average high of $1.80 a gallon. Some analysts believe the magic number will be $2 a gallon. Others don't think Americans will change their habits until it hits $3 a gallon - which could come as soon as the Memorial Day weekend.

Teacher Quality, Teacher Pay by Frederick M. Hess - Policy Review, No. 124
The problem is not the total amount paid to teachers but the fact that basing teacher pay on experience and credentials rather than performance means that pay isn’t necessarily going to those teachers who deserve it. Highly paid teachers earn their salaries not because they are exceptional educators or have tackled tough assignments but because they have accumulated seniority in wealthy school systems where pay is based on longevity. Providing raises in such a system is enormously expensive because so much of the spending is soaked up by the undeserving.

Asahi Shimbun | CRISIS FOR KOIZUMI: It's a worst case scenario and Koizumi's hands are tied
It's not as if Japan can send in a "hit team'' of SDF members to kill the terrorists and free the captives. GSDF members in Iraq must operate under strict rules about how they fire their weapons. In a nutshell, Japanese forces are not equipped to be in a war zone. As the hours ticked by, experts offered various scenarios of the crisis, unquestionably the toughest since Koizumi, 62, took office in 2001.

Dissent Magazine | God, Taxes, and "Public Reason"
It might be thought that liberals would look kindly on Riley's ill-fated Campaign for Tax Justice; however, there is an influential trend in contemporary liberal political theory that requires us to regard Riley's biblically inspired case for tax reform with suspicion. Following the late Harvard philosopher John Rawls, many liberal thinkers argue that political discourse generally, or at least the language of politics spoken by public officials in their official capacity, must not invoke reasons for state action derived from what Rawls called "more or less comprehensive" religious or moral doctrines.

Transit union asks former senator to assist negotiations
Meanwhile at the Capitol, in debate about the omnibus transportation funding bill, House Republicans voted in favor of an amendment that would turn the transit system over to private business. The bill is scheduled to be voted on Wednesday.

British commanders condemn US military tactics - The Age
Speaking from his base in southern Iraq, the officer said: 'My view and the view of the British chain of command is that the Americans' use of violence is not proportionate and is over-responsive to the threat they are facing. They don't see the Iraqi people the way we see them. They view them as untermenschen. They are not concerned about the Iraqi loss of life in the way the British are.'

TCS: Tech Central Station - Searching for Bobby Fischer's Platonic Form
Did the Ruy Lopez exist before its 16th-century namesake started playing it? A Platonist might say it did, as part of an abstract set of all possible chess openings. But chess itself has a finite history. The game originated around the seventh century A.D., and its modern rules became standard in the 15th century, not long before Ruy Lopez de Segura was playing. Platonic ideals are normally defined as timeless, yet in this case they seem also to be historically grounded. The world of abstractions seems to depend on our world. | Mercenary Boom in Iraq Creates Tension at Home and Abroad
Like the South Africans, thousands of ex-military men from around the world are flocking to Iraq to find jobs that they cannot get in their home countries. Derek William Adgey, a Royal Marine from Belfast, who was jailed for four years for helping the Ulster Freedom Fighters, was hired by Armor Group, a British company, to guard Bechtel employees. (He was subsequently suspended when the Belfast Telegraph published details of his past.)

Union played role in race relations - Hattiesburg American
"From the beginnings of the labor movement in the South, there was the question of whether you could organize black and white workers and whether the work force could become truly integrated," said Peter Applebome, author of the book 'Dixie Rising' and deputy metropolitan editor for The New York Times.

Federal Times | Why weaker unions worry managers
But while some managers interviewed by Federal Times say they welcome seeing some union powers rolled back, many warn that the effort could backfire. Workers could be left feeling they have no voice, they say, and relationships between labor and management could sour and undermine productivity. Managers say that despite some disagreements, they largely work well with unions and do not want to see those partnerships spoiled.

Associated Press | Fallujah death toll for week more than 600:
More than 600 Iraqis have been killed in Fallujah since Marines began a siege against Sunni insurgents in the city a week ago, most of them women, children and the elderly, the head of the city's hospital said Sunday.

U.S. Targeted Fiery Cleric In Risky Move (
Several American and Iraqi officials now regard Bremer's move to close the newspaper as a profound miscalculation based on poor intelligence and inaccurate assumptions. Foremost among the errors, the officials said, was the lack of a military strategy to deal with Sadr if he chose to fight back, as he did.

The New York Times | Op-Ed Contributor: Bob Kerrey | Fighting the Wrong War
Two things about that failure are clear to me at this point in our investigation. The first is that 9/11 could have been prevented, and the second is that our current strategy against terrorism is deeply flawed. In particular, our military and political tactics in Iraq are creating the conditions for civil war there and giving Al Qaeda a powerful rationale to recruit young people to declare jihad on the United States.

LA Times | Tribes' Casino Money Flowing to Academia
The tribal money is 'filling a gap or a vacuum' by fostering new courses in areas such as tribal law and projects in such areas as native language renewal, Goldberg said. 'It's not as if those topics are taught now and the tribes want them taught differently. It's more like they are not taught at all.' To ensure scholarly integrity, academic studies undertaken by the San Manuel-funded program will be peer-reviewed within UCLA, Goldberg said, and other elements of the program also will be reviewed regularly by UCLA scholars.

LA Times | Brief Raises Credibility Questions
Among the key observations in the report:

•  'After U.S. missile strikes on his base in Afghanistan in 1998, Bin Laden told followers he wanted to retaliate in Washington.'

•  'A clandestine source said in 1998 that a Bin Laden cell in New York was recruiting Muslim-American youth for attacks.'

•  Al Qaeda had members inside the United States 'and the group apparently maintains a support structure that could aid attacks.'

•  The FBI was conducting 'approximately 70 full field investigations throughout the U.S. that it considers' related to Bin Laden.

•  The FBI and CIA were investigating a call to the U.S. Embassy in the United Arab Emirates in May 2001 'saying that a group of Bin Laden supporters was in the U.S. planning attacks with explosives.'

Most dramatic was the sentence saying the FBI saw 'patterns of suspicious activity in this country consistent with preparations for hijackings or other types of attacks.'

AP Wire | 04/09/2004 | Nuke Site Workers Fear Health Problems
More than 90 workers have sought medical care for exposure at Hanford nuclear site tank farms in the past two years, according to data gathered by the Government Accountability Project, a nonprofit watchdog group. Few workers will speak publicly. Symptoms of exposure to chemical vapors include headaches, nosebleeds and a metallic taste.

Lecturers at U-M stage a 1-day strike
Lecturers and other nontenure-track faculty at the University of Michigan held a one-day strike and picketed across campus Thursday, canceling scores of classes and stopping construction at two work sites.

Boston Globe / Op-ed / How to settle Boston's labor struggles
Simply put, last best offer arbitration calls for an appointed impartial party to make a final economic determination in those instances in which management and labor reach a bargaining impasse. The arbitrator's sole charge is to choose either side's last best offer. Because the arbitrator lacks discretion to make an independent determination or reach a compromise, common sense suggests that the sides will avoid outrageous positions, and offer reasonable settlement figures.

KSTP | Progress reportedly made in ending bus strike
Earlier this week, Gov. Tim Pawlenty met secretly with members of the Amalgamated Transit Union Local 1005 and Metropolitan Council members. The talks lasted for seven hours.

LA Times | Testimony Paints Image of Passive Inner Circle
But the portrait of Bush and his closest aides that emerged from her testimony, while acquitting them of ignoring the warnings, left an image of leaders detached from the practical challenges of mounting a defense. In a sense, it came down to two concepts of how a president should operate: the Bush team's view that the chief executive should delegate authority, and the view espoused by Clarke and others that the White House should actively work to ensure that effective action is taken — including "shaking the trees" to move sometimes-hidebound government agencies.

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Baltimore Sun | Administration wages war on pornography
Lam Nguyen's job is to sit for hours in a chilly, quiet room devoid of any color but gray and look at pornography. This job, which Nguyen does earnestly from 9 to 5, surrounded by a half-dozen other 'computer forensic specialists' like him, has become the focal point of the Justice Department's operation to rid the world of porn.

(via Andrew Sullivan)
City Journal Spring 2004 | What Does the War on Wal-Mart Mean? by Steven Malanga
This new war on Wal-Mart is more than just a skirmish over store sites or union-organizing efforts. It is an attack on a company that embodies the dynamic, productivity-driven, customer-oriented U.S. economy that emerged in the 1990s by opponents who advocate a different economics.

Portsmouth Herald Local News: Shipyard unions fight for existence
PORTSMOUTH NAVAL SHIPYARD - The National Security Personnel System must be modified, or else all 4,597 workers at the shipyard will be forced to silence their voices and surrender their rights, because the unions who protect employees will no longer exist, says Paul O’Connor, president of the Metal Trades Council.

Muslim Rivals Unite In Baghdad Uprising (
On the streets of Baghdad neighborhoods long defined by differences of faith and politics, signs are emerging that resistance to the U.S. occupation may be growing from a sporadic, underground effort to a broader insurrection by militiamen who claim to be fighting in the name of their common faith, Islam.

Detroit Free Press | Ford CEO: government help needed to encourage more fuel-efficient purchases
Ford Motor Co. chairman and chief executive Bill Ford Jr. reiterated his support Wednesday for government incentives and a larger tax on fuel to spur consumer interest in gas-electric hybrid vehicles, in which his company is investing heavily.

In Study, Most Companies Reported No Taxes
Among American corporations, an average of 6 in 10 reported no tax liabilities on their United States income tax returns filed for the five years from 1996 through 2000, the study found. The percentage of American companies saying they owed nothing increased steadily but slightly in the period, to 63 percent in 2000 from 60.3 percent in 1996.

The New Yorker | The Other War | Seymour Hersh
The Bush Administration has consistently invoked Afghanistan as a success story—an example of the President’s determination. However, it is making this claim in the face of renewed warnings, from international organizations, from allies, and from within its own military—notably a Pentagon-commissioned report that was left in bureaucratic limbo when its conclusions proved negative—that the situation there is deteriorating rapidly.

The Asahi Shinbun | SUBTERFUGE: Defense Agency says sorry for deception
The Defense Agency has apologized for scheduling a fake news conference to provide cover for a secret visit to Iraq by the chief of staff of the Ground Self-Defense Force. Newspaper and television reporters stationed at the agency's press club were sharply critical of the ruse, prompting the apology.

Midland Reporter-Telegram | State tries to stop WIPP waste reclassification
New Mexico's environment secretary is threatening to block permission for a key expansion of operations at the federal government's nuclear waste dump in Carlsbad. That's if the Department of Energy continues its campaign to try to send new types of radioactive sludge there. The expansion would allow highly radioactive remote-handled waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for the first time. But it requires a state permit.

Wal-Mart vs. Inglewood a Warm-Up for L.A. Fight
With Inglewood voters set to decide Tuesday whether Wal-Mart can build a Supercenter in town, the battle over the chain's expansion throughout California may soon shift to Los Angeles, where officials are laying plans to effectively ban the megastores in much of the nation's second-largest city.
[more articles]
The Michigan Daily - Lecturer vote authorizes strike
Nearly 90 percent of the Lecturers’ Employee Organization voted yesterday in favor of authorizing a walkout on Thursday. The walkout would also include members of the Graduate Employees’ Organization and students and professors who support the LEO platform.

AFP - Fallujah horror points to rising anti-American rage
Contrary to most reports, the Sunni town of Fallujah has never been a stronghold of Saddam Hussein despite the fact that his iron-fisted regime relied mainly on a close circle of Sunni followers. The town was deprived under the ousted regime. Fallujah and the rest of Al-Anbar province are ruled by Sunni conservative tribes who have traditionally resisted submission to foreign occupiers or government forces seeking to control the area by force. Under Saddam, imams across the town refused to abide by his orders to praise him personally during daily prayers.
(via Empire Notes)
Federal Times Online | Employees are protected from bias for sexual orientation, White House says
The White House position, made in a March 31 statement to Federal Times, appears to contradict recent statements by President Bush’s appointee to the office that handles such discrimination claims...The government has advised employees since 1980 that discrimination based on sexual orientation is covered as a prohibited personnel practice under the 1978 Civil Service Reform Act and should be appealed to the Office of Special Counsel. ...Special Counsel Scott Bloch, whose office is responsible for ensuring employees are not discriminated against based on matters unrelated to their work, has questioned publicly whether the law actually protects federal employees from discrimination based solely on their sexual orientation. He removed all materials referencing sexual orientation discrimination from OSC’s Web site shortly after beginning a 5-year term in January and said he is reviewing his agency’s obligation to enforce such cases.

Foreign Affairs - Trouble in Taiwan - Michael D. Swaine:
Critics make three faulty assumptions: that Beijing would ultimately permit Taiwanese independence rather than confront the United States; that an expression of democratic self-determination is sufficient to establish territorial sovereignty and that democracy is incompatible with any political arrangement short of formal independence; and that it is immoral, as well as fundamentally contrary to U.S. interests, to oppose any manifestation of democracy in Taiwan. Once these assumptions are debunked, the prudence of maintaining the status quo becomes apparent.

Wyandotte casino shut down | Topeka Capital Journal | 04/03/04
KANSAS CITY, Kan. -- Authorities shut down a tribal-owned casino in the city's downtown Friday morning and started to remove more than 150 gambling machines...On March 24, the National Indian Gaming Commission said the casino, which opened last fall in narrow trailers attached to a renovated Masonic Lodge building across the street from city hall, was operating illegally.

Unemployment Office Manager Shot, Killed
The manager of a state unemployment office in Hendersonville was shot to death by a man upset about his jobless benefits, and another worker was wounded when he rushed to his colleague's aid, authorities said.

(Chicago-AP) Illinois First State To Block Changes In Federal Overtime Pay Rules:
Illinois has become the first state to block proposed federal changes on who gets overtime pay. Governor Rod Blagojevich today signed a law that preserves the current rules regarding who gets time-and-a-half for overtime -- even before a final version of the federal changes is released. The governor says the Illinois law treats workers fairly and with respect. Supporters say the changes will prevent about 375-thousand Illinois workers from losing overtime pay they count on.

Minnesota Spokesman-Recorder | Transit strike affects all working people:
In answer to the question, “How would you explain to another working person who does not have health care why they should support your strike?” Williamson said, “I would explain that by supporting us, it would make it easier for him to organize a union at his job and fight for medical coverage. And the ATU would support his fight."
(via The Joe Hill Dispatch)
Driver 2165 (another Transit Strike blog, via The Joe Hill Dispatch)
Colt's Manufacturing locked out about 350 union workers Thursday, the day after the union rejected a new labor contract with the gun manufacturer, a company spokesman said.

Indian Country Today [2004/03/16] Casino fighters target buses for poor employees:
Upper-class opponents of tribal casinos are taking it out on low-income employees from the inner city, some of whom have only recently made it off the welfare roles. Some 70 commuters from inner-city Hartford are caught in the middle as a state senator from an affluent rural town is campaigning for an end to the state government subsidy for the bus service that takes them to their jobs at Foxwoods Casino Resort.